The 4th Imam

His Holiness Seyyed-o-Sajidin (AS)


The Master of Prostrators and Ornament of the Worshippers, the Imam of the Nation, the Father of the Imams, the Son of the Two Exalted Imams and the Collection of the Two Seas Ali bin Hossein (AS). His blessed name is Ali, and his patronym is Abu Mohammad, and his glorified titles are Zahid and Abid (adorer), and Zaki and Amin and Sajjad and the most renowned of them is Zayn al-Abideen. His honourable father Seyyed-o-Shohada (AS) and his exalted mother is Shahr Banu or Shah Zanan, the daughter of Yazdjurd the last king of Persia. From this visage, His Holiness was said to be “Ibn ol Khayratayn” meaning son of the best two that from two sides of mother and father had the best parentage and exalted descent and was the prince of Persia and Arabs. His birth date according to accurate narrations was on the 15th of Shaaban in the year 38 Hijri (659 AD) in Holy Medina.

The lifetime of His exalted Holiness was in the epoch of brimming sedition and anxiety and started with a period together with rebellion and revolution, and until the end of his life, there was no complete tranquillity anywhere. His Holiness had the honour to witness two years of the period of his great grandfather Amir al-Momenin (AS) and ten years of the lifetime of His Holiness Hassan bin Ali (AS) his magnanimous uncle and ten years and some months was also witnessed to the life of his great honourable father, till the heart rending event of Karbala emerged and His Holiness entered Karbala accompanying his honourable father, he became ill and on the account of the intensity of illness was confined to bed in the tent and of course exempted from the crusade and the symptoms of the illness which was the reason to safeguard his sacred essence of being the proof of God after his father. His Holiness on the bed of illness during the last valediction of the Master of the Martyrs (AS) from his aunt Zainab Cobra asked for a sword and walking stick so that he could fulfil his religious duty of Jihad and sacrifice his life in the way of his father. His Holiness the Master of Martyrs prohibited him from Jihad that he was sick and not capable of fighting and chanted to the external ear of his essence that the way to his objective is not yet complete. I will traverse this half by way of martyrdom, and you and your aunt should traverse the other half by way of captivity. Then he handed over the mantle of Imamate and secrets of divine guardianship to him and left all other things under his care and informed his exalted sister Zainab of circumstances and assigned the external nursing of His Holiness to her and commissioned her to spiritual obedience to him and gave the commandments of divine guardianship to one of the noble ladies so that she could hide it amidst her hair.

Although His Holiness’s honourable father was martyred on the afternoon of 10th Muharram, he was the sovereign of all other things except God. Superficially was captivated by the vicious enemy and bound in chains and iron rings that: “He was the Loin of God, and the Lion of God is not ashamed of the chain”. And on the 11th Muharram 61 Hijri (681 AD) Omar Saad mounted His Holiness on a camel with no saddle like the rest of the household of His Holiness Seyyed-o-Shohada and tied his blessed legs under the stomach of the camel, because of the intensity of weakness of illness he could not resist sitting on the camel, and they took him in the same condition to Kufa. After hearing insults and humiliation in the streets of Kufa from the treacherous and lewd people, they made him enter the assembly of the accursed Ubaydallah bin Ziad. While introducing the captives, that accursed man asked His Holiness his auspicious name. Said: Ali bin al-Hossein. Said: Did not God kill Ali bin al-Hossein in Karbala? Said: He was my brother who your people martyred him. Said: No God killed him. Said: “Allah takes (men’s) soul at the time of their death”.[1] That accursed was enraged by the denial of the answer and ordered to kill His Holiness. His aunt Zainab threw her hands around His Holiness’s neck and said, I promise to God, if you want to kill him you must kill me too. Ubaydallah became ashamed and said: what prodigious affection! and disregarded the killing of His Holiness. Then Ubaydallah sent the report of the event of Karbala with the sacred head of His Holiness Seyyed-o-Shohada to Yazid and allocated a place for the captives and awaited Yazid’s instructions for them. No fixed period of time for their detention and stoppage in Kufa has been recorded in any book and history, but taking the distance between Kufa and Damascus into consideration and the return of the messenger of Ubaydallah from Yazid and to prepare the captives to move in the direction of Damascus, it can be presumed that their stoppage in Kufa was for twenty-five days and this period is nearer to reality. Accordingly, His Holiness Sajjad and the captives would have approximately in the first half of the month of Safar 61 Hijri (681 AD) started towards Damascus.

In short, the captives were sent towards Damascus according to the orders of Yazid and in places for stoppage along the way, were sometimes flourishing habitats, sometimes Christian monasteries, sometimes wilderness and water wellsprings and wells. And when the stopover place of the caravan was water wellsprings or small farms without any shelter, the agents of Ubaydallah from the fear of probable attack and raid from the Shiite, would place the heads of martyrs and captives in monasteries along the way and which usually had shelter; and stories and miracles and narrations from the monasteries and captives have been said which is out of the scope of this document.

Anyway, according to some narrations which are also more correct, the captives of the Household on the 16th Rabi ul awwal of the year 16 Hijri (638AD) reached Damascus. The duration of stopover of the Household has not been mentioned in the books and biographies precisely and for the same reason some historians have mentioned the entrance of the captives from Damascus to Karbala and meeting Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari on the day of “Arbain”[2] of the first year of the martyrdom of the Master of Martyrs (AS) and of course this seems very unlikely unless assuming this meeting with the same explanation should have taken place during the time of going from Kufa to Damascus and this assumption also with Ubaydallah being in Kufa and the Household who were still in iron collars and chains and as captives were dispatched are far beyond the scope of possibility according to the calculations of time and the times would be incompatible. Thus taking place of meeting on Arbain in the second year of martyrdom during the return of the captives from Damascus is more logical and more correct and in case of correctness of this notion the stopover of the Household in Damascus should have taken so much time that during return on the 20th Safar of the year 62 Hijri (682 AD) would have reached Karbala and this notion has some confirmations too, that one of them is this: according to reports and narrations after the entry of the captives to Damascus, for some time they were in custody in a ruined place with no roof that during the day heat and night from cold were in suffering and the injury of the two opposed obtrusive coldness and hotness necessitates to include both winter and summer. Next, it is far from imagination that the wicked essence of Yazid in that hostile manner and fierce behaviour with the captives which he had taken at the beginning of their entry had changed totally and on the contrary would have been inclined with kindness and compassion regarding them and would have changed his visage upon regret or upon diplomacy so quickly, unless it would be for a long time. Next with that revolt and tumult and outburst and deluge which had started all over Iraq and Hijaz after the day of martyrdom of His Holiness the Master of Martyrs (AS), as a rule the diplomacy of Yazid’s dominion was an obstacle to this that the captives with distressed and heart trickling with blood to enter the blazed and disturbed society of Iraq and Hijaz. All these confirm that the stoppage of the household in Damascus was a bit more prolonged.

Anyway, His Holiness Sajjad after difficulties and afflictions that forbearance one-tenth of it is out of the patience and tolerance except for the Imams like him, chained and shackled he entered Damascus with the captives and entered the assembly of Yazid. Discourses and conversations took place between His Holiness and Yazid that are recorded in the books describing the events of Karbala in detail and that accursed attempted to kill His Holiness, but the Almighty God did not give him the authority. Then he placed His Holiness and the captives in a ruined place with no roof and sometimes would summon His Holiness to his assembly and would dispute and argue with him till after a while the duration of which cannot be determined definitely, outwardly would repent and be remorseful from his acts and by expressing kindness and with apologies sent His Holiness and the Household with Bashir bin Jazam towards Medina respectfully and willingly and perhaps it was in this journey returning from Damascus that they came in Karbala on Arbain and Jaber ibn Abdullah Ansari must have accidently come into his presence there. In short he set out from Karbala to Medina and when near Medina sent out Bashir before himself to announce his entry to Medina and the people of Medina with a sigh and groaning and enthusiasm and crying and with black flags and in the state of being ruined welcomed His Holiness and with an outcry of “Oh Hossein “entered him in radiant Medina. The captives in the shrine of His Holiness Mohammad (SAAS) caused a doomsday excitement. And encountered the pain in their hearts beside the sacred grave and made the city tremble by weeping and wailing. In short, after observing ceremonies of mourning for the martyrs and tranquillity of excitement and uproar, the ruler of Medina with utmost honour and respect and in the shelter of affection and with special fondness and courteous manner took His Holiness to his residence and His Holiness was engaged in the worship of God. His Holiness’s honourable uncle Mohammad bin Hanafiya who at the beginning of His Holiness’s divine leadership was not sure and perhaps thought himself to be more worthy of that position after discourses with His Holiness finally acknowledged his divine guardianship and submitted to His Holiness.

However, the general situation of the Muslims from the day the news reached about the horrendous event of Karbala and the martyrdom of the Master of the Martyrs (AS) to cities and towns, the Muslims everywhere became agitated and exasperated and started the movement against the wicked Yazid. In Mecca and Medina, the people once again started a mutiny and uprising in every street and district, and gathering and assembly damned and cursed Yazid and propagated his faults and his ignominy and expressed abhorrence and detestation from him and considered the revoking of allegiance with him necessary. In Medina the people were seeking for a leader who would undertake to guide the people and in Mecca Abdullah bin Zubair took advantage of the situation in the meantime used to invite the people to himself and in Iraq also the Shiite of Kufa for vengeance of His Holiness the Master of the Martyrs (AS) organized secret gatherings and contacted the Shiite of Basra and its vicinity for organizing a movement which then after was famed by the name of “movement of Tawwabin”.

Since the news of the revolution in the cities and towns reached Yazid, he started the order of affairs from Hijaz, dispatched Othman bin Mohammad bin Abu Sufyan as the governor of Hijaz. After entering Mecca, he associated and socialized in a friendly manner with groups from the nobles and elites and old emigrants and friends and moreover prepared a group from them to journey to Damascus to see the Caliph, and sent them to Yazid with kindness and politeness. Yazid met and associated with them with kindness and affection. After rendering his warm hospitality, during their return gave each of them numerous presents and gifts. He drowned them in his favours and indebted those in his gratitude and in his thoughts cleansed the rust of torment and enmity from their hearts. But as soon as they returned Mecca they spread and propagated whatever they had heard about vices and dissoluteness of Yazid and signs and the instances they had seen in this journey among the people of Hijaz and disgraced and degraded him totally and considered his removal as a necessity of religious duty. Uprising and rebellion of the people of Hijaz reached its peak, and in Medina, they dethroned Yazid and made allegiance with Abdullah bin Hanzalah Ghasil al-Malaika as the ruling authority and leader and expelled the governing head of Medina and majority of Bani Umayyah from the city except for Marwan and his son Abdul Malik.

In all the events His Holiness Seyyed Sajjad (AS) who had kept aloof from the people, took to seclusion. In Mecca, Abdullah bin Zubair emerged too and took allegiance from the people and took possession of that city and sent an invitation to Iraq for taking allegiance from the people. Yazid after hearing the news about the event of Hijaz, dispatched Muslim bin Aqaba well known as Muslim Mosrif to Hijaz with a well-armed troop and commanded that he would give to the inhabitants of Median just three days’ time to obey him, after three days, if they don’t obey him he would attack with harshness and with utmost severity and bring full order in Medina and then set out for Mecca, to ward off the sedition of Ibn Zubair. Muslim surrounded Medina, and after a battle defeated the rebels and seized the city, he allowed his army carnage and plundering of Medina for three days, and the people of Damascus in that holy city committed innumerable crimes and felony and violated the chastity of many. After three days Muslim stopped carnage and plundering and compelled the people to swear allegiance without conditions in the name of Yazid so that Yazid on their lives and properties and in any way he wanted would have control on them.

This episode which is well known as the battle of Horra took place at the end of the year of 63 Hijri (683 AD), and according to narrations, six thousand persons from the aristocrats of Medina and the children of immigrants (Muhajerin) and Ansar and others were killed. During the stopover of Muslim in Medina on the basis of recommendation of Yazid he was not impertinent to His Holiness Ali bin al-Hossein (AS) and did not make trouble for him, on the contrary on meeting with His Holiness he would maintain a respectable aspect and during the return of His Holiness from the meeting from him he would hold the blessed stirrup so that His Holiness would mount the horse. Because Yazid was aware that the presence of His Holiness was far from the participation in rebellion and revolt, despite the insistence of the people had taken to seclusion. Anyway, Muslim after easing of the work of Medina went towards Mecca and became ill and appointed Hasin ibn Namir after him as the commander and advised him to ward off the sedition of Ibn Zubair and kill him, even if it results in the damage of the Kaaba.

Hasin after the death of Muslim set out to Mecca and as a result, entered Mecca on the 2nd of Muharram in the year 64 Hijri (684 AD) and camped outside the city and set up catapults on the mountains of Abu Qubais and other heights. During this time most of the people of Hijaz had made allegiance with Ibn Zubair, and those who had fled from the battle of Horra from Medina joined him. Ibn Zubair confronted with Hasin outside the city. After severe fighting, he was defeated, and a group from him dispersed, and a group with him took sanctuary in the Masjid al-Haram and engaged in defence. Hasin bin Namir surrounded the city and by means of catapults hurled stones and fire towards Masjid al-Haram and the Zubairians inside the masjid would defend themselves. Suddenly the news of the death of Yazid was circulated, and both sides withdrew from fighting, and Hasin sent a message to Ibn Zubair that the cause of battle and dispute has finished, and permit us to enter Masjid al-Haram for a pilgrimage to the Kaaba. Ibn Zubair gave permission. The army of Damascus put down their weapons, came for pilgrimage and Hasin during his meeting with Zubair said: Yazid died and nobody today is more deserving than you for the caliphate, come with me to Damascus so that I can make you sit on the throne of the caliphate. Ibn Zubair did not accept. Then Hasin returned to Damascus, and Ibn Zubair freely started inviting people, and the people of the suburbs of Hijaz made allegiance to him. The people of Kufa and Basra totally also except a group of the Tawwabins and their dependents accepted Ibn Zubair and he sent Abdullah bin Yazid Ansari to rule over Kufa.

This time the Shiite who had gathered under the banner of Suleiman bin Sorad Khazaie to avenge the blood of the Master of the Martyrs and they were well known by the name of Tawwabin, with the intention of revenge for the killing of His Holiness the Master of the Martyrs (AS) came out of Kufa and set out towards Damascus. Ubaydallah bin Ziyad who was the ruling governor of Iraq and at this time he was in Basra, was frightened from the movement of the people of Iraq and escaped towards Damascus, but Damascus was also tense since Muawiah bin Yazid bin Muawiah who had been seated as caliphate after the death of his father after forty days of his caliphate had the honour of being guided, gathered the people in the mosque, after giving lecture introduced the caliphate of his grandfather Muawiah and his father as unlawful and moreover introduced himself as not eligible for the position of caliphate, he nullified the allegiance and removed himself from the caliphate, and even according to a narration in answer to some who used to ask what is the duty of the people in regards to the caliphate said: I know you shall not obey. Otherwise, I should say that the caliphate is the right of the distinguished person of Ali bin Al Hossein. And came down from the pulpit and went home and after two or three months he died a natural death or by means of poison who his family fed him. After his seclusion the control of the order of the affairs of Damascus again was disrupted and a group who got around Zahak bin Qays who inwardly was supporter of Ibn Zubair and appointed him temporarily for the tranquillity of the situation to leader of communal prayers and for leading the people, and a group from the Bani Umayyah who were supporters of Khalid the second son of Yazid and who wanted him to be the caliph, also a group from the tribe of Ubaydallah Ziyad and Hasin bin Namir and the others who had given their hands in friendship and covenant to Marwan bin al-Hakam. Till finally Marwan and his companions fought with Zahak bin Qays and his companions in Marj Rahat in the year 64 Hijri (684 AD) and Zahak was defeated and killed and his followers were dispersed. In Damascus, the affairs of the caliphate were stipulated by Marwan and gained control in those cities. Then he sent Ubaydallah Ziyad with an army for the conquest of Iraq. Ubaydallah in a place called Eyn al-Varda came across the Tawwabin, and both sides started the battle. After one or two battles, the news about Marwan’s death reached both. The army of Damascus sent a message to the Tawwabin that our emir Marwan has been killed and Abdul Malik has sat in his place as his successor and the city of Damascus was assigned to him, and the countries of Hijaz and Iraq was also seized by Ibn Zubair, thus for what purpose and for whose benefit you are putting your life in danger and fighting!? The Tawwabin said: Our purpose is to revenge the blood of His Holiness Hossein Ibn Ali (AS). It is better that you also surrender Ubaydallah Ziyad who is the slayer of His Holiness to us so that we can punish him and abandon Abdul Malik too and unite with us so that we can go to Iraq and Hijaz and drive out the Zubairians and swear allegiance with one from the Household of the Prophet. Of course, no agreement was reached among them, and the furnace of war became heated again and resulted in the martyrdom of Suleiman bin Sard and a large number of the Tawwabin and the escape of Refaat bin Shaddad the second emir of the Tawwabin ended.

In brief, this time the Islamic countries were in two parts and under two flags, Syria and its region was occupied by Abdul Malik Marwan , and Iraq and Hijaz was occupied by Abdullah bin Zubair. When the Refaie tribe and the remaining of the Tawwabin returned to Kufa, Mukhtar bin Abu Ubaid Thaqafi that the Shiite were indebted to him in reality and who had a share in the retribution of the revenge of His Holiness Master of the Martyrs (AS) and the events of that time was still in prison of Abdullah bin Yazid agent of Ibn Zubair in Kufa and during the same period was rescued by Abdullah bin Omar from prison and planned to prepare for revolt. During this time, Ibn Zubair removed Abdullah bin Yazid from Kufa and in his place sent Abdullah bin Matii instead of him and Ibn Matii entered Kufa in Ramazan 66 Hijri (686 AD). Mukhtar by means of a deceitful letter in the name of His Excellency Mohammad bin al-Hanafiya based on a mission from the side of His Excellency for revolt and to take vengeance of His Holiness Hossein (AS) gathered the Shiite around himself. A few persons such as Ibrahim bin Malik Ashtar were more cautious and questioned the validity of his claim from His Excellency Mohammad bin al-Hanafiya. He said: Whoever takes steps in the way of avenging my brother Hossein bin Ali (AS) I will approve him and will be a supporter of him. This acknowledged Mukhtar’s work to be strengthened and he together with the Shiite revolted on Wednesday 14th Rabbi-o-Thani 66 Hijri (686 AD) in Kufa, and after battling took possession of Kufa and forced Ibn Matii to escape. That time Mukhtar went to the palace and after taking allegiance from the people was engaged in managing the affairs. Thereafter he was in pursuit of the murderers of His Holiness “The Master of the Martyrs” (AS) and found a number of those accursed men for their evil deeds who were hiding in Kufa or its region and anyone of them he found he retaliated them in a gruesome way. Till news reached him that Ubaydallah Ziad with an army from Damascus has come towards Iraq on behalf of Abdul Malik Marwan and he has reached west of Mosel. He dispatched Ibrahim bin Malik Ashtar with a group of the army of Iraq to fight them and Ibrahim after successive wars and triumphs and victories alternatively finally was victorious over the army of Damascus, defeated them and killed many of them and then after searching for the body of Ubaydallah, his wicked body was found among the killed, he cut off his head and sent it to Mukhtar, and he sent it for His Excellency Mohammad Hanafiya and His Holiness Seyyed Sajadin and burnt his filthy body.

After this event, Abdullah Zubair sent his brother Musaab to govern Iraq and entrusted him to ward off Mukhtar. Musaab came towards Kufa, and Mukhtar sent a group of his army to confront with them who returned back defeated. Then Mukhtar himself went outside Kufa with his army which he had, fought severely and was defeated and returned to Kufa and took sanctuary in the palace and after forty days of sanctuary and not having food and water was compelled to come out of the palace and attempted to make the last attack and in this attack was martyred and his life after 18 months of rule was ended in Ramadan 68 Hijri (688 AD). Musaab sent Mukhtar’s head to his brother Abdullah Zubair with a triumphant letter and Hijaz and Iraq were cleared from Abdullah Zubair.

Until the year 71 Hijri (691 AD) approached, and Abdul Malik Marwan with a large army with the intension of occupying Iraq set out. Since his news reached Musaab who was at that time in Basra, came to Kufa with the army of Basra and Kufa and was dispatched to confront with Abdul Malik and in a place called Maskan, the two confronted each other, a group from the Kufans that unfaithfulness and treason was in the essence of their nature were deceived with letters and promise of Abdul Malik, before the start of the battle they joined Abdul Malik overnight, therefore restlessness appeared in the army of Musaab and they were defeated after fighting and Masaab and Ibrahim bin Malik Ashtar who during this time was at his services were killed. Abdul Malik with victory and triumph entered Kufa and took allegiance from the people and dispatched governors to cities and towns of Iraq. Then he thought of getting rid of Abdullah Zubair and infiltrate Hijaz and sent Hojjaj bin Yusuf Thaqafi in the year 72 Hijri (692AD) with an army of 3000 soldiers to Hijaz, he travelled and passed Medina and arrived in Tayif. Ibn Zubair sent a troop to confront against him. Hojjaj for some time would fight with the method of fight-and-escape intermittently with the army of Ibn Zubair, and incidentally, in every confrontation, the army of Ibn Zubair would be defeated and crushed, till gradually Hojjaj’s intension to weaken the fighting power of Ibn Zubair was acquired gradually. Then he wrote to Abdul Malik that at present if you help us with fresh troops the conquest of Mecca will be possible. Abdul Malik sent Tarokh with five thousand troops to help Hojjaj so that he could occupy Medina and throw out the agents of Ibn Zubair. That time he went towards Mecca during the end of Dhuul Qadah 73 Hijri (693 AD) in Mecca and united with Hojjaj who had gone there before and after fighting he surrounded the suburbs of Mecca and stationed catapults on the mountains of Abu Qubais and on other heights and Ibn Zubair took sanctuary in Masjid al-Haram and remained surrounded and those accursed cast stones and fire into Masjid al-Haram by means of catapults till the Hajj time began, and both sides abandoned fighting so that the people could perform the rituals of Hajj. And after the end of the time of Hajj, they started fighting again, and the ring of the blockade of Masjid became tighter, and the pressure of Hojjaj on those surrounded became more. Those around Ibn Zubair gradually either ran away or came under Hojjaj’s safety. Ibn Zubair saw his disposition as critical, was ready for death and rushed out from the Masjid to attack those from Damascus. He fought in a manly way and combated bravely at last was defeated and killed. Hojjaj cut his head and sent it to Abdul-Malik and hung his body upside down from the wall of the Masjid that after one year his body was buried. This time the caliphate of Abdul Malik on all the Islamic countries was established, and there remained no competitor for him for the caliphate.

In the year 73 Hijri (693 AD) Abdul Malik himself came to Mecca and obtained allegiance from the people, mounted on the steed of his desires and took control; of the affairs with full authority in his hands. And in the year 75 Hijri (695 AD) took allegiance for Walid and Solayman his sons from the people for the succession of the crown one after the other and till the year 86 Hijri (705 AD) sat on the throne of caliphate and in the month of Shawwal in the same year after 60 years of age, and 9 years of caliphate over half of the Islamic countries during the time of Ibn Zubair and after killing him for 21 years and some months ruled all Islamic countries, and left this world and Walid bin Abdul Malik sat on the throne of Caliphate.

In the year 86 Hijri (705 AD) he purchased some land around the Prophet’s mosque and increased the extent of the mosque and the wheels of time likewise was in agreement with the treacherous Walid and the year passed after year till the year 94 Hijri (713 AD) approached and His Holiness Seyyed Sajjad according to the well-known saying was poisoned with Walid’s plot and taken to bed with sickness, and asked his relatives and his own family to gather around him and appointed his esteemed son Imam Mohammad Baqir to succeed him and be the Imam of the people and handed over his Will to him and advised all the members of the family to obey him and went towards the realm of paradise on the 12th Muharram 94 Hijri (713 AD) after 55 years and some months of life and 33 years of Imamate His Holiness in praiseworthy morality and in honourable virtues was inheritor of Hazrat Mustafa (SAAS) and in abstinence and worship was the second to his great grandfather Ali Morteza (AS) and in patience in calamities like Ayyub was unique and matchless. Due to excess of worshipping, he was famed “Zain al-Abedin” and from the celerity of prostration to the threshold of God the Almighty said to be “Seyyed al-Sajidin”. His Holiness’s sayings and sermons are full of wisdom and invitation are more than to be enumerated and are out of the scope of this papers and the best instructor of them are collected in “Sahifa Sajjadia” which is well known among the exclusive and public and needs no explanation.

The marriage of His Holiness: His Holiness’s non-bondswoman (free) wife was just Her Excellency Fatima the daughter of His Holiness Hassan ibn Ali (AS), her patronym was Umm ul-Hassan or Umm-e Abdullah, and she was the exalted mother of His Holiness Imam Baqir. The rest of His Holiness’s wives were slave girls that he released some of them and got married.

Children of His Holiness: According to some narrations His Holiness had 20 children, of them 12 male children.

1.     His Holiness Mohammad al-Baqir

2.     Zaid Shaheed

3.     Abdullah Bahir

4.     Umar Ashraf

5.     Hassan

6.     Hossein al-Akbar

7.     Hassan Asghar

8.     Abdul Rahman

9.     Suleiman

10.  Ali

11.  Mohammad al-Asghar

12.  Ubaydallah

His Holiness’s daughters were eight:

1.     Fatima

2.     Alliyah famed as Umm-e Ali

3.     Umm-e Kulthoom

4.     Umm-e Musa

5.     Umm ul Hassan

6.     Umm ul Hossein

7.     Malika

8.     Khadija

Some well-known disciples of His Holiness:

In the 10th Volume of Bahar, his disciples are listed, and it is said that his secretary was Yahya bin Umme Tawil[3]

2.     Abu Hamza Thomali

3.     Abu Khalid Kabuli

4.     Thawir bin Fakhta

5.     Abdullah Sharik Ameri

6.     Mohammad bin Tarif al-Hanzali

7.     Qasim bin Owf

8.     Salem bin Hafsa

9.     Qasim bin Mohammad bin Abi Bakr

10.  Amer bin Wathna

11.  Jaber bin Abdullah al-Ansari

12.  Saaed bin al Mosayyib

13.  Saeed bin Jaabir

14.  Saaed bin Jahman

15.  Ali bin Rafi

16.  Hamid bin Musa

17.  Farazdaq, the poet

Some notable contemporaries of His Holiness:

1.     Abu Nowas

2.     Farazdaq

3.     Kathir bin Abdul Rahman well known as Kathir Izza

Some rulers of His Holiness time:

1.     Yazid bin Maoviyya

2.     Abdullah bin Zubair

3.     Mukhtar bin Abi Obaida

4.     Marwan bin al-Hakam

5.     Abdul Malik Marwan

6.     Walid bin Abdul Malik

[1] Surah Az Zumar – verse 42: اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنْفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا

[2] The anniversary of the fortieth day after the martyrdom of Imam Hossein is named Arbain.

[3] Maybe using the name for “secretary” who was a private and special link between the Imams and the believers is used for “Pir-e-Dalil” in terms of jurists and mystics.



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