The 2nd Imam

His Holiness Hassan Mojtaba (AS)


The Shining Light and the Plenary of Goodness, the Manifest of the Secret of the Holy Dhul’man (Bountiful) and the Arc of the Ascendant from the Right, Imam Hassan bin Ali bin Abi Talib. His auspicious name was Hassan and his noble patronym was Abu Mohammad and His Holiness’ titles are Mojtaba and Taqi and Tayyeb and Zaki, and his most famed title is Mojtaba. His blessed birthday was on the 15th of Ramazan in the year 2 Hijri (March 16, 624 AD) and his birthplace was in Holy Medina. His Holiness during the time of passing away of his great grandfather His Holiness Mohammad (SAW) was eight years and some months old and not much time had passed from the passing away of His Holiness Mohammad (SAW) that his exalted honourable mother Sayyada-o-Nisa Fatemeh Zahra (SA) also united with her honourable father and the two brothers Hassan and Hussein (AS) remained orphaned. His Holiness Amir according to the will of Her Holiness Zahra, brought Imamah to his house to look after them. His Holiness Hassan under the shelter of his father’s care grew up and was raised and in the battles of Jamal and Saffin and Nahrawan accompanied in the stirrup of his father at all times and participated in battles and showed bravery and courage from himself.

After the martyrdom of his noble father on the 21st of Ramazan in the year 40 Hijri (31 January, 661 AD) according to the explicit order of his father, was his father’s successor and caliphate of the Prophet, and the people performed Bayat for his succession with him in multitudes by their heart and soul. He after completion of Bayat engaged in handling the affairs and assigned new functionaries and officials for some countries such as Yemen and Hejaz likewise kept some in their previous place in some cities. Two months had passed from Bayat and his settlement on the seat of caliphate and His Holiness thus stayed in Kufeh and engaged in adjusting affairs of the country. Since he was not sure about the loyalty of the Iraq people and their stability and perseverance in obedience to him, thus, during this time, he did not mention the name of Muawiyah and he did not mention war and crusade, till Ibn Abbas, the governor of Basra wrote a letter to His Holiness as to why he is sitting quiet and calm in Kufeh, and not taking measures to wage war against the enemy, the people are waiting for you to mobilize the army and move towards Damascus.

His Holiness after receiving his letter decided to depart towards Damascus and started to prepare for war with Muawiyah and engaged in mobilizing the army. At that time found out that Muawiyah has sent some spies to Basra and Kufeh for spying and misleading the people. His Holiness ordered to arrest and kill them. Then, he wrote a letter to Muawiyah that the spies you had sent for investigation of affairs and misleading and deceiving the people around me, were arrested and punished for their deeds. This action of yours is a clear reason that you are inclined to war, in a short while you will reach your desire and will see the battlefield full of the troops. After that also numerous letters were exchanged between His Holiness and Muawiyah and each one invited the other for obedience and submission, till news reached to His Holiness Hassan (AS) that Muawiyah with an army of 60 thousand has come out of Damascus with the intension of Kufeh and reached besides Jasr (bridge) of Jakh. His Holiness Hassan (AS) also gathered his army and arrived at Nakhilah and after three days organized the army. The 40 thousand equipped infantry on foot and mounted cavalier came. Then His Holiness missioned a man named Hakam with a group of soldiers to the city of Anbar and ordered to Hakam to stop in Anbar; till my order would reach you. Hakam went and arrived in Anbar, and as soon as he arrived Muawiyah sent him 500 thousand dirhams and a promise to rule Anbar and invited him to obey him. Hakam took the money and overnight joined Muawiyah. This news was given to His Holiness Hassan (AS). His Holiness after complaining of the Kufiyans infidelity and reproach requested another person and in the presence of all obtained a promise that he would not commit treason and be disloyal and sent him to Anbar. Muawiyah did the same act with him and with some money mislead and pulled him towards himself. His Holiness Hassan (AS) appointed Obaidullah bin Abbas his own aunt's son as commander of twelve thousand soldiers and the official vanguard of the army to move towards Muawiyah and sent two of his outstanding companions Qays bin Sa’d bin Ibad and Saeed bin Qays along with him and said to him to depart towards the enemy; and whenever he would reach Muaviyah to obstruct his way and would stop him till His Holiness reaches with the army. And if anything happens to Obaidullah, the authority should be delivered to Qays and if anything happens to him, Saeed bin Qays should take over the command of the army.

Obaidullah travelled till he reached the famed lands of Maskan. Muawiyah also set out and reached Maskan, and the two armies came opposite to each other, the next day morning the two armies entangled with each other and the battle started. Not a long time had been passed, that Obaidullah pushed back the Muawiyah’s army till he made them flee to their army encampment. As night came, both armies rested. Muawiyah sent a few persons to Obaidullah that Hassan bin Ali himself has written a letter to me and is desirous of peace, anyway, whether you like it or not you will be under my command, in the coming days but if you now obey me, I will give you 30 thousand dirhams, that half of it you will be paid now in cash and you will receive the other half after arrival in Kufeh. Obaidullah was enticed, and the same night joined Muawiyah without letting anyone know. In the morning, the army waited for their commander to come out of his tent, of course, and they did not see him and they looked for him everywhere, there was no trace of him, the case was clear and his disloyalty revealed.

Then Qays bin Saeed took over the commandership of the army and attended for confrontation and the fighting continued intensely. That day also the army of Muawiyah retreated. When night came Muawiyah repeated his deceitful act and sent someone to Qays so that he could lure him, but Qays was not tempted and was not lured and the next day continued the battle. However, after this, the discipline of the army of Kufeh was not as like before and the behavior of the soldiers in the army and the heads of the tribes were not trustworthy anymore. His Holiness Hassan (AS) was disappointed, from loyalty and sincerity of his companions after having heard of these incidents. When he witnessed the disloyalty of his aunt’s son Obaidullah, who else could he trust and expect loyalty from which person! Especially, when it was revealed that most of the elites of Kufeh and the chiefs of the tribes communicated with Muawiyah secretly, and spoke about friendship with him. On the whole, he was disappointed with victory and triumph because of such deceitful enemies with such companions and treacherous soldiers and traitors, and amid the crowd, and he delivered sermons complaining of the infidelity of his companions and the betrayal of his friends, and despairing of the outcome of the work and the result of the war protested. Although collectively they expressed obedience and compliance and commitment to resistance and endurance during the war, he said: I see that your tongue and hearts are not one, nevertheless how much loyalty did you all do with my father Ali Murtaza that you want to do with me. Nevertheless, at present, I am en route to Madayen Army camp and will alight there, if you are saying the truth and follow the path of loyalty, my appointment with you will be at Madayen. So that we will meet each other there, and if in your speech you are sincere let us recompense to make up for the past. Then with an exclusive group moved towards Madayen, and from a group of soldiers who were in his services set out and another group stopped to move from it. His Holiness entered Saabat of Madayen in such a state that he was suspicious of everyone, that for protecting his life he wore armour under his clothes, and during prayers, he would appoint a group for his protection, because Muawiyah had promised to the Kufiyans that whoever kills His Holiness, he would receive a reward of two hundred thousand dirhams cash, also, the ruling authority of an army’s division, moreover, Muawiyah would marry his daughter to him.

In short, His Holiness (AS) after entering in Saabat of Madayen, delivered a short and ambiguous and peaceful sermon to test the state of the mind of the soldiers of his army and to discover the contents of their inner minds and intentions of his forces and army and invited his friends to follow His Holiness’s advice and opinions. Then came down from the pulpit and went towards his tent, because his statement did not have much explicitness and the contents of it were not clear, caused uneasiness of opinions and exposed to various interpretations of individuals. A group said that His Holiness is thinking about making peace with Muawiyah, another group said that his speech literal meaning was complaining from his friends and their untrustworthiness. In such circumstances suddenly false news was circulated that Qays bin Sa’d the commander of the Iraqi army in Maskan was killed and the Iraqis altogether were defeated and were conquered. This fabricated false news made the situation turbulent and increased upon the uproar and anxiety and disposition of the companions of His Holiness and the possibility of thought of victory over Muawiyah and the thought of His Holiness Hassan to win was cleansed from memory and a group of rogues from the army revolted and went to the tent of His Holiness and engaged in looting, one drew the prayer from under his feet and the other stole his clock (aba) and his blessed life was in danger, that a group of his disciples arrived and surrounded him in protection and protected him from the enemies and dispersed them. Then His Holiness mounted and with a group of faithful companions and special Shiite went towards Madayen. In the darkness of the Saabat of Madayen, one of the enemies came out of his hiding place and with an iron rod in his hand injured his blessed thigh. His Holiness defended himself with his sword and others reached and killed the attacker and His Holiness could not endure riding the horse, they put him on a bed and took him to the house of Saeed bin Masood Saghafee the uncle of Mukhtar bin Abi Obidah in Madayen. There, Mukhtar who was a fresh young man who was after lust and desire, suggested to his uncle to hand over His Holiness (AS) to Muawiyah, and take the authority of Iraq as a reward, but his uncle cursed him and threw him out of his house.

In short, His Holiness was in bed and was being treated and the people distressed and disturbed and depressed and worried about the future of the affairs and were astonished and perplexed in their work. This was the case that one of the companions said to his presence that these conditions, has drowned the people in calamity and perplexity and the lack of knowledge from the intension and decision of Your Holiness in confronting with this situation has increased on their bewilderment. What decision and measure Your Holiness are going to decide. Said: Promise to God that it comes to my mind that Muawiyah for me is better than these people who consider themselves as my Shiite, who intended to kill me and looted my tent. I think that if I would to take a pledge and pact from Muawiyah that my life and property and female members of my family and my family be safeguarded and my Shiite and friends to be safe, it would be better than having hope and depend on such friends to fight Muawiyah, that I would certainly be killed and my household remains without a guardian and my family be oppressed and the Shiites murdered and crushed, otherwise, these same friends would deliver me to Muawiyah hands tied and if they don’t kill me would hold me under obligation for my life and freedom, till ad infinitum, this disgrace will remain in the family of Bani Hashim.

Then he gathered a group to say his last words of an ultimatum, and delivered a sermon and said: I did not leave the war with Muawiyah because of insufficiency of the army or due to fear and dread, but because I observed that your hearts have been turned away and your loyalty and sincerity has been given to hatred and resentment instead. In the beginning, when you joined me in Jihad against the enemy, you chose religion over the material world, and now you have chosen the material world over this religion. That day we were one with each other and our hearts were bond with love and loyalty for each other, today a part of you has remembered the memory of the victims of Saffin and Nehravan and your stability in crusade has suddenly become anxiety, sighs, and groans. Now O! people, Muawiyah calls you to allegiance with himself an allegiance that is not worthy and he does not deserve it. If you stick to the life of this material world, I would accept his request and would put this thorn in my eyes and bear the pain of this humiliation and degradation. And if you are ready to prefer death to a disgraceful and humiliating life I will fight with him and will ask the victory from God. The military, groups replied, that it would be better to work precautiously and save our lives from death. This time, His Holiness decided to make peace with Muawiyah. On the other hand, since Muawiyah was aware of the revolt and uprising of the soldiers of Hazrat Hassan (AS) and saw the background for the betterment of his aim, he sent respectful, friendly and peaceful and amicable letters to His Holiness. And also sent the letters of some elders of Iraq who secretly wrote to him and promised that when the two armies clashed, they would either kill or capture His Holiness and hand him over to Muawiyah and wrote to His Holiness that these are the helpers on whom you rely to confront me with. So you and I should finish this work expediently and peacefully. I am ready to accept whatever your demands and wishes in return for peace and to make a commitment to implement them. Hazrat Hassan (AS), of course, he knew that the promises of Muawiyah are false, but the letters of the Iraqi army that he had sent were not false and there was no helper for him except a few of the special companions of Ali (AS). They were so few that in the very first attack they would be surrounded by the enemy and would be killed. This was it that His Holiness has no choice but to accept the peace. Therefore, in response to Muawiyah, he wrote a letter based on the desire for peace under specified conditions and he defined the conditions in such a way that Muawiyah would not work outside the Book of God and the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW), and not to appoint a successor for himself and all Muslims in all places everywhere, specially the Shiite of Ali (AS), should be safe and secure and protected and immune from aggression in terms of life and dignity and honor and in regards to His Holiness and his brother Hussein (AS) and about all the family of Ali (AS) not conspire and plot inwardly and not secretly and stop to insult and curse Ali (AS) and not expect that His Holiness call you Amir al Momenin, and not ask him for testimony, and every year pay him 50 thousand dirhams, and the current assets of the treasury of Kufeh be for His Holiness exclusively and deliver the tax of Darabjerd to His Holiness for dividing among the heirs of the slains of the Shiites of Ali in the battle of Saffin and Jamal.

His Holiness sent the peace treaty with the attached conditions through Abdullah bin Al-Harith to Muawiyah. He was pleased and happy on receiving it and promptly accepted all the conditions and signed the pact, and several of his elites testified his signature and returned it to His Holiness. At this time, Hazrat Hassan (AS) informed the matter to the companions and said: Muawiyah used to dispute with me in the affairs which were not his right and I considered it appropriate to protect your life, property, and honor, I entrust these affairs to him and your Bayat with me was in such a way that in peace and war you be my followers and obedient to me. Now in war, as it was meritorious you did not keep your promise and treaty with me. But, at least in peace follow and obey me. In brief, on the 25th Rabi-ul-Awal in the year 41 Hijri (1 August, 661 AD), all the work of the compromise were done and the war and fighting ended and Hazrat Hassan (AS) withdrew from the caliphate after six months.

After finishing the work, His Holiness took towards the Nakhilah from Madayen of Kufeh. Muawiyah also followed His Holiness and entered in Nakhlilah and gathered the people in the mosque there, and went on the pulpit and said: O! people, I swear to God that, I did not fight with you for prayer or zakat and or fasting and Haj, but I fought only for the sake of sovereignty and dominance over you. Now, that I have subdued you, and mounted over my desires, everyone should know that the peace treaty and the conditions which I have accepted from Hassan bin Ali (AS), I will trample on all of them, and will not let you the arrogant and rebellious and disobedient from you to survive, and will not keep any opposition to be alive. After that, he went towards Kufeh, on the first day of Rabbi-ul-Thani he entered in Kufeh, and took allegiance from the people willingly or unwillingly. His Holiness Hassan (AS) after a few days left Kufeh for Medina and Muawiyah became happy and relaxed because till His Holiness was in Kufeh, Muawiyah was inwardly disturbed. In short, Muawiyah after taking allegiance from the people and settling the affairs of Iraq returned to Damascus.

Hazrat Hassan (AS) from this time till the end of his life was entangled and blamed by slanderous people and unworthy friends and was vexed and tormented by the enemies. The feeble-minded people called him a disgrace to the believers and the friends considered peace as an insult and used to hurt Hazrat by their poisonous tongue lashing. Until in the year 49 Hijri (669 AD). Muawiyah came from Mecca to Medina with the intension of pilgrimage to observe the fondness and heartfelt sincerity of the people of Hejaz regarding His Holiness (AS), so his mind was disturbed, and saw the existence of that Hazrat an obstacle to his son Yazid’s successorship which he has been implanting in his mind. Therefore he decided to kill His Holiness and sent a lethal poison with alluring promises to Ja’dah who was the wife of His Holiness and was the daughter of Ashaath bin Qays to poison His Holiness and promised her that he would marry her to Yazid. That accursed women put the poison in His Holiness’ water pitcher and poisoned him. His Holiness according to a narration fell on his sickbed for forty days and was engaged in writing his wills and assigned his brother Hussein ibn Ali, Syed Al Shoada (AS) as his successor and proof of God on the people. At the same time besides his will, he said to his exalted brother that he desires to be buried as close to my grandfather, the Messenger of God as far as possible, but I think that the dissidents will prevent it. If my supposition comes true and the enemies prevent it, promise me in the name of God that you will not draw your sword in this way and not fight as I am not content that a drop of blood is shed near my dead body, and I in this will, I emphasize and insist on it. Stated his will and on the 27th or 28th of Safar in the year, 50 Hijri (29 or 30 March, 670 AD) passed away and became near to his exalted grandfather and made the people of Medina especially, the Bani Hashim, sorrowful and grievous.

His Holiness Abu Abdullah according to the will of His Holiness performed the washing of his sacred body and shrouded him and along with the Bani Hashim went towards the Holy Shrine of the Holy Prophet (SAW). Marwan ibn Hakam who heard about this matter hurried to Aisha and mislead her that the burial of Hassan ibn Ali next to the Messenger of God (SAW) will hurt the privilege of exclusivity of your father in the neighboring of the Prophet, and brought Aisha on the same mule he had brought to the mosque of the Messenger of God with a group of discontent armed Bani Umayyad. Aisha faced the Bani Hashim, said: the tomb of the Prophet is my home and I am not pleased that you bury Hassan ibn Ali in my house. A big noise was made and the swords were drawn by the two sides and the arrows went into the bows. Hazrat Abi Abdullah al Hussein said: I swear by God if there was no respect for the will and the command of my brother Hassan, not to refrain from the opposition and not to fight, I would have made you understand that you were not capable of preventing and stopping us. But what can I do, since my brother has said to adhere peacefully according to his will. So I will take his sacred body which I brought for farewell with his grandfather to Al-Baqi, then he took his sacred body towards Baqi which was impacted by a few wooden arrows shot by the Bani Ommayah and buried him next to his grandmother Fatemeh Bint Assad, May God bless them.

The life span of that Imam was 47 years and a few months and the duration of his Divine Caliphate from the martyrdom of his noble father till this time was 9 years and some months and the outward caliphate of His Holiness was 6 months and a few days. In virtues and morales of His Holiness it suffices to say that His Holiness was the first child of the Prophet and the first person among “Our sons”[1] and the second Imam of guidance and the third of “those who feed the poor and orphans and captives”[2], the fourth person of the “People of the Kisa” and “The Reyhanih of the Prophet” and “the seyyed of the youngs of the Paradise”[3].

His Holiness has married many divorced women. The children of that Honourable Imam: The children of His Holiness were fourteen.

Eight boys:

1- Zeid bin Hassan
2- Hassan, famed as Hassan Muthanna
3- Hussein bin Hassan, famed as Athram
4- Talhaht ibn Hasan known as Talhaht ibn al-Jawad
5- Obeidollah bin Al-Hassan
6- Qasim bin Hassan
7- Abdullah bin Hassan
8- Omar bin Al-Hassan

Daughters of His Holiness were six girls

1- Umme Al-Hassan
2- Fatima reputed as Umme Abdullah, exalted mother of Hazrat Baqir (AS)
3- Umme Salmah

4- Roghayah
5- Umme Is’ihaq
6- Umme Abdullah.

Some outstanding personalities and great companions of that Imam:

1- Qays Waragha

2- Rashid Al-Hijri

3- Maitham Tammar (that in volume 10 of the book of Bihar ul Anwar these three persons have been introduced as his representatives).

4- Hujr bin Uday

5- Riffat bin Shaddad

6- Komail Bin Ziyad

7- Musayyib Bakhih Farazi

8- Qais bin Saad

9- Amre bin Hamaq

10- Zaid bin Argham

11- Sulaiman Bin Sard

12- Jabir bin Abdullah

13 - Abu al-Aswad De’li

14- Salim Bin Qais

15- Habib bin Mazaher (or Mazhar)

16- Ahtaf Bin Qais

17- Asbagh Bin Nabatah

18- Abdullah bin Jaafar Tayyar

19- Muslim bin Aqeel

20- Abdullah bin Abbas

21- Hazifat Bin Abad

22- Jarod bin Monzer.

[1] Regarding the verse 61 of the Surah: Ale-Imran.

فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنْفُسَنَا وَأَنْفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ.

[2] Regarding the verse 8 of the Surah: Al-Insan.

وَيُطْعِمُونَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ مِسْكِينًا وَيَتِيمًا وَأَسِيرًا.

[3]سيد شباب اهل الجنة..



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