The 3rd Imam

His Holiness Hossein

 “The Master of the Martyrs”, (AS)


The Perfect Secret of Allah, and the Great Blood of Allah, the Imam of All and the Father of the Guardians and the Fifth of the People of Kisa (the Robe) and the Master of the Martyrs.

His Holiness Hossein bin Ali bin Abi Talib (AS), His Holiness was the second grandson of His Holiness Mustafa and the second son of Ali Morteza from the womb of Fatimah Zahra. His auspicious birth date occurred on the 3rd of Shaban in the year 4 Hijri (626 AD) in holy Medina, and his noble patronym Abu Abdullah and his blessed titles are Wafi and Tayyib and Sibt and Sayyid. He was brought on the behest of the Apostle of God (SAAS) after birth before the breast of his mother was given in his blessed mouth. The Messenger of God (SAAS) put his sacred tongue and according to a narration placed his finger in his mouth and he ate the first worldly extract of blood and meat of his great forefather which was the reservoir of capital of the growth of his blessed essence and, therefore, was the genuine proof of “your meat is my meat”[1]. His Holiness with his brother Hassan was brought up in the virtuous lap of Fatimah Zahra and on the knees and shoulders of His Holiness Mustafa (SAAS) till the year 10 Hijri (631 AD). Many times the Prophet of God would so much prolong prostration in prayers for the comfort of His Excellency who was playing on his shoulders till he would come down. The blessed mouth and neck of Hossein (AS) was the kissing place of the Prophet of God (SAAS), and the chest of His Holiness was the cradle of comfort for him.

His Excellency was seven years old when His Holiness Mustafa (SAAS) passed away, and after a short time his exalted mother Hazrat Zahra left this world, and Hassan and Hossein grew under the care of their aunt Imamah, which according to Hazrat Zahra’s advice the Commander of the Faithful Amir al-Momenin Ali (AS) married her and under the shadow of their magnanimous father grew up and were raised.

His Holiness Hossein (AS) at all times and in all places was liked and loved by all the companions of the Prophet, even the 1st and 2nd Caliphs would express their utmost affection and respect to His Holiness. It is said that one day, His Holiness entered the mosque of the Prophet and saw the 2nd Caliph on the pulpit and said: come down from the pulpit of my father and sit on the pulpit of your father. The 2nd Caliph came down from the pulpit and kissed His Holiness and took him in his arms on the pulpit and said: you have told the truth, this pulpit is of your grandfather, but my father did not have any pulpit. His Holiness in the uprising against Othman in the year 35 Hijri (655 AD), according to his father's orders with his brother His Holiness Hassan went to Othman's house for the protection of Othman from the invasion of assailants, that of course safeguarding them also could not alter their fate. And after the external Caliphate of His Holiness the Commander of the Faithful (Amir al-Momenin) was at the services of his father and participated in the “battle of Jamal” in the year 36 Hijri (656 AD), and in the battle of Saffin also in the position of commander of a part of the army of his father fought with the opponents and in 9 battles in which he fought, revealed bravery and firmness, and after the martyrdom of his honourable father in the year 40 Hijri (660 AD) had a place under the shadow of his esteemed brother His Holiness Hassan (AS) and in 6 months' time during the external Caliphate of His Holiness Hassan he was assigned in the military expedition in mobilizing the army against Muaviyah and was a helper to his brother. And after His Holiness Hassan made peace with Muaviyah he kept silent and did not say anything about the unmentionable, whatever he heard and from the persecution of the enemy whatever he saw, due to respect for the signature of his brother’s Peace Covenant, till His Holiness Hassan was martyred, and again in the sedition which was going to be made around the burial of His Holiness Hassan near to the Prophets grave, with patience kept afar from dispute with the opponents according to the will of his brother.

Muaviyah who during the lifetime of His Holiness Hassan (AS) was not able to declare the successorship of Yazid, after the martyrdom of His Holiness, started to think about this matter seriously and was thinking as to how to do it, but up to 3 years after the martyrdom of His Holiness Hassan, meaning in the year 53 Hijri (673 AD) he did not act seriously upon this matter, and in that year, first of all, sent Yazid to Mecca and Medina to pretend piety and abstinence, meantime, gave many gifts and grants to the people of Mecca and Medina, thereafter, in Damascus rumoured the successorship of Yazid verbally and to prepare the people and to make the background ready, and refrained from following up officially, till this talk was spread as rumours among the people and also wrote to other provinces that his functionaries spread this subject among the people so that by hearing this the people get accustomed to it and their minds be prepared to accept it, because Yazid's reputation among the people for immoral life was to such an extent that to accept his successorship by the people was likely impossible. After some time passed, the intensity of the rumours and the fear of the people gradually became less. In the year 55 Hijri (675 AD) or 56 Hijri (676 AD) he invited most of the outstanding personalities and notables in the district of Damascus and took Bayat from them for the successorship of Yazid. That time wrote to Marvan, his governor in Medina, and asked him to take Bayat from the people of Medina too. Marvan confronted severe opposition of the people, wrote Muaviyah his inability to carry out his order. Muaviyah himself on the pretext of Haj went towards Mecca and Medina. In Medina, the first degree magnanimous of the Muslims, His Holiness Hossein bin Ali (AS) and Abdu Rahman bin Abi Bakr and Abdullah bin Zobayr together went to see him. He received them with a sullen face and bizarre speech, and they became furious and returned back to Mecca. Muaviyah when he saw them far off from Medina officially brought forth Yazid's successorship and obtained Bayat from the people. Then from Medina went to Mecca and in Mecca contrary to Medina during the meeting with His Holiness and Abdu Rahman bin Abi Bakr and Abdullah bin Zobayr greeted and met them with a cheerful appearance and with them conversed, and for each sent numerous presents and many gifts, that two of them accepted it but His Holiness Hossein (AS) refused from accepting it. Muaviyah for some time without showing his intents stayed in Mecca, till one day he invited His Holiness alone and spoke about the successorship of Yazid, and said that all the notables of the cities and towns accepted the Bayat of Yazid's successorship, and I delayed in getting the Bayat from Medina and Mecca lastly, as Medina is our house and the people are our kinsmen. Now, I have come to Mecca for the same reason and do not expect anyone concerning this dispute by putting this off. His Holiness Hossein (AS) said: the Caliphate is a great affair, and Yazid does not have the worthiness to take office; it would only be right that you keep the people free so that they can choose whoever is known as capable for this affair. Muaviyah said: I understood your intention and meaning, rise and go home safely, but hear this advice from me, and beware the people of Damascus who are with me, that if they hear your disagreement, they will not stay quiet, that these people are bloodthirsty and will bear animosity with your father.

Since Muaviyah did not get any desirable results from discussions with Abdu Rahman bin Abi Bakr and Abdullah Zobayr the next day after preparing the first steps issued necessary orders to a few of his own particular men, gathered the people in the mosque, and of course, the three persons of his preference His Holiness Hossein (AS) and Abdu Rahman and Abdullah were also among the audience. Then he went on the pulpit, and after salutations of the sermon, he brought up the succession of Yazid. He said: I have heard that some people have propagated and spread false news, such as it is said that Hossein bin Ali and Abdu Rahman bin Abi Bakr and Abdullah bin Zobayr that each of them have high positions in the Islamic society and are prominent figures of the Muslims are discontent from my son Yazid and do not approve with his succession, though they are present here now and with the succession of Yazid are pleased, and in this regards performed Bayat, if they have something else besides this to say, they can express themselves. Muaviyah's speech had not yet finished when a few people from Damascus got up from their place and drew out their swords according to prior orders and said: “O! Amir till when are you going to talk about the positions and importance of these few persons, who are they to disagree with our Amir’s order, permit us to cut off their heads and relieve them from delusive and vain thoughts”. Muaviyah with a harsh tone said: Be quiet and sheath your swords, till when you people of Damascus be pertinent and inclined to bloodshed; these are the honourable righteous of this country and pious of the people, and killing them is not permissible. He said this and came down from the pulpit, and went to his house and those three persons were astonished as to what to do and what to say. If they were to express a little opposition and or contradict his speech, undoubtedly they would be killed, and their blood would be wasted without result. Therefore, they remained silent and did not speak, and Muaviyah went towards Damascus the next day. After Muaviyah left, the people blamed them, by saying as to why expressing previous opposition for the successorship of Yazid, they performed Bayat with Yazid secretly. His Holiness (AS) said: we did not openly nor in secret performed Bayat, but with drawn swords of those from Damascus and not having supporters with a slight denial would have seen our blood going in vain and kept silent in compulsion.

In brief, Muaviyah, before reaching Damascus, became sick in Abva and on entering Damascus fell on his death bed. And from the nobles of Damascus and commanders of the military took Bayat again for Yazid and wrote his instructions for Yazid, such as in his will about His Holiness Hossein bin Ali recommended that: O! Yazid don’t ever offend Hossein bin Ali from yourself and never torment His Holiness. Of course, from time to time threaten him, but never draw your sword on him, and never interfere in shedding his blood, observe his respect and with a donation of gold and properties make him happy.

Then in the month of Rajab in the year 60 Hijri (680 AD) after 78 years of age and 19 years and some months went to hell, and his chief of police Zahhak summoned Yazid who was in the hunting grounds of Damascus, and handed over all the matters of sultanate of Muviyah to him, and made him sit on the throne of sultanate. Yazid got busy with the changes and replacement of officials of provinces, such as Marvan the governor of Medina, by sending him an order of removal from the governorship of Medina and appointed Walid bin Aqabih in his place. He ordered that he obtain Bayat renewal from the people of Medina. Especially, about His Holiness Hossein bin Ali and Abdu Rehman Abi Bakr and Abdullah bin Zobayr and stressed that they should be summoned immediately, to obtain Bayat and if any of them don’t obey to cut off their heads and send them to him immediately. Walid was fearful of their disobedience, consulted Marvan. Marvan recommended and encouraged to execute Yazid’s order. It was at the beginning of the night, and at the same time Walid in the name of sultanate summoned them, and Walid's man met and saw them in the prophet's mosque who were talking together, and conveyed Walid’s orders. His Holiness Hossein said: I will go home and from there will come to Walid. When Walid's man left, the three persons started to discuss as to what could be the motive of summoning us? His Holiness Hossein said: I think that Muaviyah has left this world and Walid has asked us to come for Bayat with Yazid. Abdullah Zobayr questioned: if this is the case, what approach would you select? His Holiness Hussain said: in no way, I will perform Bayat with Yazid the immoral dissolute. Abdullah said: then either don’t go to meet Walid or be cautious. His Holiness went to his house from the mosque and with 30 persons of his brothers and disciples went to the Walid's house. In front of the house told his companions: you all stay right here and keep watch, if my stay takes long or my voice becomes loud with harshness come in and rescue me. Then entered Walid's house, and found him engaged in conversation with Marvan. Walid in respect of His Holiness stood up and welcomed him with warmness, and after finishing the usual compliments, His Holiness said: I have heard Muaviyah is sick; do you have news from him? Walid said: Muaviyah has died, now a letter has reached from Yazid regarding you, it was necessary that I bring it to your notice; handed over the Yazid's letter and demanded Bayat from him. His Holiness said: Bayat of a person such as me is not befitting that it be done at night and secretly. It would be better when tomorrow the death of Muaviyah is announced, and the people come together for Bayat, then I will also be present and whatever is advisable be executed. Walid said: you said well, go back in safety, till tomorrow in the presence of the public, this work will be finished. Marvan told Walid; you are making a mistake, if now you let Hossein go, you will not see him again; obtain Bayat from him or cut off his head. His Holiness became angry and in a loud voice, said: O! Ibn ul Zarqan. No one of you is capable of killing or compelling me to do anything. Then he stood up from his place and came out of the house and with his companions who were just about to enter the house, went to his home. The next night His Holiness visited the shrine of his grandfather; the apostle of God and for a duration of the night complained to the sacred grave and expressed his grievances from the followers and from the people and engaged in complaining of the circumstances and asked for the remedy and what he should do with what has come up, from the holy spirit of His Holiness. In the late hours of the night, His Holiness went into a light sleep, and his exalted grandfather in a dream said: O! Hossein go towards Iraq because God wants to see you killed.[2] His Holiness woke up from sleep and went home and engaged in preparation to journey to Iraq. Then in the middle of the night of the 27th Rajab in the year, 60 Hijri (680 AD) with wife and children and family and relatives went towards Mecca and arrived in Mecca on Friday the 3rd of Shaban. The other preeminent men also gradually came to Mecca.

Since the news of arrival of His Holiness to Mecca was circulated in Kufeh, the Shiites and the followers of the family of Ali gathered together, started writing letters to His Holiness on the basis of renouncing Yazid and expressing affection and devotion towards His Holiness and requesting him to set out to Kufeh for Imamate and leadership and expressing their commitments to self-sacrifice in his blessed retinue, and these letters in the beginning which started with four or five signatures were reaching successively and every time would reach with more signatures, and the later letters used to reach were on scrolls with signatures of hundreds of persons all supplicating and requesting His Holiness to depart towards Iraq, and because His Holiness had not replied to the first letters a group of about a hundred people with the letters on behalf of the majority of people of Kufeh came to Mecca with insistence and suppliance requested the acceptance of the request of the people of Kufeh. Their suppliance obliged His Holiness to consider their request and not keep their request unanswered. Then in the middle of Ramazan of the year 60 Hijri (680 AD) sent Muslin bin Aqeel to Kufeh as his representative and wrote a letter to the Shiites of Kufeh that in accordance to your insistence now have dispatched my cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to you to investigate your disposition that if your disposition and real situation were consistent with your letters, then perform Bayat on my behalf with him so that he would inform me so that I shall set out for Kufeh towards you. And in the meantime, he wrote a letter to the Shiites of Basra and informed them of the circumstances.

Muslim with two persons who knew the way departed towards Kufeh and on the night of 5th Shawal entered Kufeh and lodged in the house of Muslim bin Musayyab and the Shiites and friends became aware of his arrival and came to meet him in groups. He would read the letter of His Holiness Hossein bin Ali (AS) for them, and they in groups with enthusiasm and pleasure and ready to sacrifice their lives and with devotion performed Bayat with him, till the number of those who performed Bayat reached eighteen thousand people. Then Muslim mentioned the case to His Holiness Hossein and wrote that now Kufeh is ready for His Holiness to come and the people are prepared for the holy war (Jihad) under your command. Though Muslim's intention and opinion was this that the coming and going of the Shiites and the current affairs be kept quiet and remain almost secret as far as possible till a suitable time, but of course to keep such a situation secret was impossible. It was this that Nauman bin Bashir, the governor of Kufeh, became aware of the occurrences, and in the masjid while addressing the people advised them mildness with tranquillity and forbade from disagreement and discord, but the supporters of Yazid and Bani Omayyah did not consent with his peaceful speech, wrote letters to Yazid consecutively and informed him of the situation and criticized the mildness of Nauman and instigated to take effective and urgent measures for safeguarding Iraq. Yazid consulted with his companions and finally according to the preferred conclusion and on insistence of the Christian advisor by the name of Sarhoon who was recommended by his father Muaviyah, with discontent wrote a letter to Obaidullah bin Ziad who was the governor of Basra and handed the authority of Kufeh to him and missioned him to go to Kufeh immediately and prosecute the opponents with severity and harshness and in whatever way he found capture Muslim bin Aqeel and to kill him and extinguish the fire of sedition. Obaidullah who was wicked and ambitious and ruthless by nature, left his brother Othman in charge in Basra and with a few persons of his own kind went towards Kufeh without hesitation and when he reached near Kufeh, since he saw the affection of the Shiites towards His Holiness Amir and his family and knew they were expecting His Holiness Hossein (AS) to arrive in Kufeh, waited and came out in the night with cunning diplomacy and precaution and wore clothes like the clothes of Hejazian and put a veil on his face and entered the city, with his friends in disguise and went towards the governing palace. The people of the city and the Shiites who were awaiting the arrival of His Holiness Hossein (AS) made a mistake and thought that he was His Holiness Hossein, and on the way everywhere with the welcoming sonance of: “O! Son of the Messenger”, would receive him and would follow after him.

Thus disguised and furious, Obaidullah rode till he reached the door of the palace. Nauman bin Bashir also thought that he is His Holiness Hossein (AS) and closed the door of the palace and started apologizing from the rooftop saying: O! son of the Messenger of God excuse me for closing the door on you. Ibn Ziyad saw that he would be disgraced now, he pulled down the veil from his face and said to Nauman. O! Stupid, open the door it is me Obaidullah. That time Nauman and the people recognized him. Nauman opened the door, and the people dispersed. Obaidullah entered the palace and became aware of what was going on. In the palace, he did not see more than two hundred special guards and did not see them capable of confronting the people; therefore, he took to deception and trick. The next day morning, every one of the nobles of Kufeh who would come to see him, he would associate with them with kindness and converse till groups of nobles in his presence were gathered gradually. Then he took them to the mosque for his own protection and announced Yazid’s decree to the people of Kufeh, and with a threatening speech to the Kufiyans warned them to avoid sedition and rebellion and with a tone of anger asked them for obedience. Then he returned to the palace of government and started to find remedy for this work, he called upon the chiefs of the tribes and the nobles and elders of the localities and said to them: I have come to Kufeh for order of the affairs and in this way will act harshly, if sedition and corruption were seen, I will cut off that tribes rights, and will crucify the chief of the tribe, and if an uproar were raised in any locality I would kill the chief of the locality and I would plunder that locality. Then some of the nobles of Kufeh such as Mussayib and Suleiman bin Saud and Refai'e and Mukhtar and others who he was suspicious of them, took them into custody in the palace. Then appointed vigilant spies in every locality and street and district to be careful about the situation and set up sentry guards at the beginning of all the crossings and roads that at the smallest suspicious they would arrest the people. Actually, he brought about a strict curfew. Despite these conditions because of the information that he had about the number of supporters of Muslim, he did not see his own army capable of confronting Muslim. For weakening the forces of Muslim sent a group of mercenaries to frighten those around Muslim from the entry of soldiers of Damascus and harshness of Yazid and to disperse them from around of Muslim. They even would go to the houses of the Kufiyans and would agitate the families, that their own father would call their sons, and sisters would call their brother upon a pretext and not allow them to go back. These conspiracies suppressed the initial enthusiasm and eagerness of Muslim's supporters little by little and frightened the people, then the companions of Muslim exhausted and lessened gradually as had increased gradually and Muslim also took precautions alongside the activities of Obaidullah and from the first house he was in went to Hani bin Urwah's house who was the chief of the tribe of Kondah and was endowed with glory and once again engaged in obtaining Bayat and expansion of forces in secrecy.

Obaidullah became conversant on affairs gradually and became hopeful on improvement of the work and planned to arrest Muslim, but still he did not have definite information on Muslim's dwelling and hiding place and his plans, then said to his servant Maqal to declare to be a Shia and by any means to reach to Muslim to perform Bayat and to join his supporters and obtain full information on their condition and current work. Maqal fooled Muslim ibn Awsaja and through him found Hani's house and the association of Shiites. He performed Bayat with Muslim outwardly, and for some days associated with them till he was aware of everything and recognized the prominent individuals and chiefs of the Shiites and informed Ibn Ziyad about the acquired information. For arresting Muslim and attacking Hani's house, Ibn Ziyad saw it far from politics and vigilance, so by expressing a friendly complaint with affection that Hani did not visit him yet and by sending his salutations, he obliged Hani to go to the palace out of courtesy. During meeting him in the beginning, he asked him with a calmness about the current situation of his house. Hani denied the events completely. Ibn Ziyad called Maqal, and they faced each other, Hani now knew that Ibn Ziyad knew everything, hence confessed of Muslim being in his house but refrained from surrendering Muslim to Ibn Ziyad. Ibn Ziyad imprisoned Hani. Then Muslim was obliged to declare an uprising openly and to have Hani released. Then with the proclamation “O! Mansour of the people” which was their slogan brought about four thousand people together and attacked towards the palace. Ibn Ziyad did not have a large army force ready, and there were not more than two hundred people, said to close the door of the palace and proceeded to protect it, and meanwhile there were a few nobles of Kufeh with him, he let them out secretly and sent them among the companions of Muslim, that with whatever stratagem to disperse the people. They also with counsel persuaded the obedience to the ruling government and with threatening the entrance of the forces of Damascus dispersed the people from around of Muslim. Ibn Ziyad raised a safety flag in the corner of the wall of the palace and announced that whoever repents from the following of Muslim and goes under this flag would be safe.

With these events, Muslim had surrounded the palace till the evening of that day, but from afternoon onwards inherent unfaithfulness of the Kufiyans started, and the companions of Muslim started scattering and till evening from the twelve thousand persons who had prayed with him last night and the four thousand persons who were with him that morning, more than five hundred persons did not remain with him and at the beginning of the night, his forces were three hundred and during the evening (E’sha ) prayers lessened to thirty persons. And when Muslim recited the evening (E’sha ) prayers, he saw nobody was behind him. Hence he came out of the mosque alone wandered in the streets of Kufeh perplexed and amazed, till he came to the doorstep of a house of a woman by the name of Tuwaa and asked for water. Tuwaa brought him water and after recognizing him took him to her house and hid him. Late in the night when Tuwaa's son came home, from the state of the house and perplexed condition of his mother he insisted to his mother and became aware of His Excellency Muslim's presence in the house and early in the morning gave this news to Ibn Ziyad, with Tuwaa's son guidance, he sent a group to Tuwaa's house to arrest Muslim, when Muslim learned of this matter came out of the house with his sword and in the street attacked Ibn Ziyad's soldiers and defended himself. This fighting and struggle continued till noon. The assailants due to the narrow alley were not able to attack in a group and in a man to man fighting too they could not progress due to the courage and superiority of Muslim, from the top of the roofs they threw stone over him and at last they dug a ditch in the middle of the alley and covered it with straw stalks, and Muslim in one of the attacks fell into the ditch and was captured. They took him with his hands tied to Ibn Ziyad and that accursed ordered death for His Excellency. Then they took him to the roof of the palace and cut off his head and immediately martyred His Excellency Hani too and to terrorize the people threw the bodies of both in the alley.

The case of His Excellency Muslim with these conditions on the 8th of Dhu-al-Hajjah in the year 60 Hijri (680 AD) ended and Kufeh entirely went under the dominance of Obaidullah bin Ziad, then by all the ways and big roads which from the outskirts ended to Kufeh, he sent groups of armed horsemen so that they could prevent His Holiness Hossein ibn Ali from entering Kufeh in any way. He as well sent Horr bin Yazid Riyahi with one thousand soldiers towards the way of Qadesiyah who confronted with His Holiness Abi Abdullah and if His Holiness comes he would end in the tragedy of Tef. But, His Holiness Hossein bin Ali (AS) after receiving a letter from His Excellency Muslim in the beginning of Dhul-al-Hijjah in the year 60 Hijri (680 AD) to His Holiness, indicating the Bayat of eighteen thousands people of Kufeh and readiness of that city to receive His Holiness, thought of going towards Iraq. And when this thought was finalized as a decision when His Holiness learned by investigation that Yazid has sent thirty persons to Mecca to perform Hajj and were going to martyr His Holiness during circumambulation when the people are in their Ihram Hajj clothing free of any weapons. He saw that it would be better to go to Kufeh and even if he is martyred, his life would not be wasted without results, and moreover, the sanctity of the House of God would not be broken by killing him. His Holiness discussed his intent to move to Iraq with his companions, among them mostly his friends, even enemies posing as friends who warned him that it was not advisable to go there on the hopes of the unfaithful people of Kufeh. His Holiness would give each an answer according to their state of mind and would justify his compulsion to go, even during departure from Medina had explicitly said to some special persons, and members of the family, and also wrote to them from Mecca that this journey is according to the command of the Prophet of God and the divine decree of the Almighty God and the cancellation of that is not possible.

However, His Holiness started from Mecca on the night of the 8th of Dhul-al-Hijjah and traversed till he reached a place by the name of Alhajiz, and from there wrote a letter to the citizens of Kufeh and informed them that he is coming towards them. From Alhajiz started and traversed over Oyoon and Al Khomamah and reached Salabiyah. In this place, his blessed ears heard about the killing of Muslim and Hani through a passer-by Arab and said: “We are from God and we return to him”, and in the halting place gathered his remained companions which according to some narrations were approximately 2500 people, and gave them the news of the martyrdom of Muslim and Hani and said that the Iraqis committed treason and violated their Bayat, and the situation is such that I am going towards martyrdom. Anyone of you who has come with me and is fond of this material life, it is better to go back from this place. A group from the companions of His Holiness who supposed triumph and victory and in their thoughts that they would gather booty and sustenance in his stirrup returned back. Then His Holiness travelled till the place Ashraf (or Sharaf) and in that place stayed the night. In the morning while starting the journey, he said, today take and carry more water, maybe we will need it. After travelling for a few hours, he heard a Takbir (glorification of Allah), “God is great” voice from one of the companions. He asked for the reason of Takbir. Said: I know this way very well and in this way never saw a palm grove, and now can see the shadows of the palm grove from afar. The companions with care paid attention to the road, said they could see the top of spearheads of mounted cavaliers. Said: Is there a safe place in this vicinity? They said: The Zuhim is a big hill is here nearby. His Holiness went towards the hillock and dismounted near it, suddenly Horr bin Yazid Riyahi with his mounted soldiers reached. His Holiness saw signs of thirst in them and ordered to quench their thirst. Then he asked about Horr's purpose and intention. Horr said: From Obaidullah's side, I am appointed to prevent you from moving ahead towards Kufeh. His Holiness did not say anything and went towards his tent and in the afternoon during prayer time came out, both armies with him prayed. Then His Holiness said to Horr and his retinue: I came towards you based on successive letters and requests and your commitments of you the people of Kufeh. Now if you are still faithful to your previous promises, renew your promises with me, and if you are regretful from your promises, I will return back to the House of God. Nobody of them replied to His Holiness.

That night passed. In the morning again, His Holiness said the same statements to Horr and his companions like the previous day. This time Horr said, we do not have any information about these letters and are not among the writers of them. I have been ordered that if you go towards Kufeh to be with you till I reach you to Obaidullah, otherwise to stop you right here and to get orders from Obaidullah, as to what I have to do. After some discussions, they agreed that His Holiness to travel from the way besides the way of Kufeh and Medina so that Horr would ask for orders from Obaidullah. Thus His Holiness chose the way between Azeeb and Qadessiyah and Horr also wrote the circumstances to Obaidullah and moved in adjacent to His Holiness till they reached Quora Altaf (Naynawa).

It was the morning of the 2nd day of Muharram 61 Hijri (681 AD) when they reached there. At the same time Obaidullah's letter in reply to Horr's letter reached, saying: as soon as this letter reaches, you must create trouble for Hossein bin Ali and stop him from moving and bring him to a dry and barren desert, keep me informed, and the carrier of this letter is my agent to supervise on carrying out of my decree. Horr till this time had not exceeded limits of humility and politeness towards His Holiness, changed his approach, and since His Holiness wanted to move from Naynawa he intended to prevent His Holiness with harshness, and it was not His Holiness's desire to stop in a barren desert and insisted on moving. He showed Obaidullah's letter to His Holiness inevitably and got ready for war. Some companions of His Holiness Hossein (AS) also said: it would be better to kill this group which are not a large group now, because afterwards they will become a large group, and it would be more difficult for us. Said: I will not start the war.

In short, His Holiness in compulsion stopped in the same place, asked for the name of the place. They said: “Karbala”. His Holiness said: “Karb” (Grief) and “Bala” (Calamity). Then he ordered to set up the tents around each other and afterwards to dig a ditch around it and to fill the ditch with thorns in such a manner that the entrance and exit of the tents be from one side, so that in case of necessity the thorns can be ignited, and the way of attack to the tents can be barred so that the members of the household be safe from the enemy’s violation. The next day a letter reached His Holiness Hossein from Obaidullah Ziyad saying that from Yazid's side that he is ordered me not to eat and drink till I obtain bayat for Yazid from you or to kill you. His Holiness threw his letter and said: not worthy of reply. Obaidullah after not receiving reply from His Holiness Hossein, appointed Omar bin Saad Waqas who was nominated for being the governor of Rey and who was at present ready to set out with an army of six thousand to Daylam for war, by threating to nullify his governorship of Rey made him accept to go with six thousand soldiers to Karbala and take up the commandership to fight with His Holiness Hossein. Omar, with six thousand soldiers of his own, was the first army who entered Karbala on the 3rd day of Muharram 61 Hijri (681 AD). After him, Senan bin Anas and Orvat bin Qays and Shayth bin Rabie and Shimr ben Zil Jawshan entered Karbala gradually, and in turn till the 9th of Muharram. Although the army of Omar Saad numbered up to twenty-two thousands of soldiers, nevertheless, Ibn Ziyad for the reasons of bravery that he knew about the Bani Hashim, was not sure of the consequences and one after the other would propel forces to Karbala, till the total of the army of Kufeh reached up to 33 thousand that by adding the logistics to the army, it could have reached up to 50 thousand. Omar Saad, after entering Karbala, met His Holiness the Master of the Martyrs and inquired with His Holiness about the reason for this movement. His Holiness said: You the people of Kufeh invited me requesting with insistence to depart towards Kufeh. Now if you are regretful from your invitation l will return back to Medina and if not will go to one of the neighbouring Islamic countries. Omar Saad informed the circumstances to Ibn Ziyad and asked as to what should be done. That accursed wrote to Omar, propose Yazid's Bayat to Hossein and his companions. If they perform Bayat, then inform me, so that whatever advisable I will order accordingly. Omar, who was sure that His Holiness would not accept Bayat to Yazid, did not give the letter to His Holiness. The next day another letter reached from Obaidullah that now that your army is complete and capable of any command if Hossein is not prepared for Bayat, start a war without hesitation and every hour inform me of the current situation. Since Omar was not inclined to war kept stalling that perhaps a way will be found and the matter would be concluded without bloodshed.

Till the day of 7th of Muharram came. Another letter from Ibn Ziyad reached Omar that:[3] “create an obstruction between Hossein and the Euphrates river” Omar sent a group to the riverbank of Euphrates so that they could prevent the army of the Master of the Martyrs to take water. It is said His Holiness ordered to dig a well around the camp, till the 9th day of Muharram they used the water from it. When the 9th of Muharram came, Shimr ibn Zil Jowshan with a 4 thousand army and a letter from Ibn Ziyad entered Karbala, and Obaidullah in his letter reprimanded Omar Saad and wrote that it seems in fighting a war you are showing negligence, till Shimr reaches, you either must attack Hossein and his companions and kill them all or I will hand over the commandership of the army to Shimr so that he shall execute my orders, and Shirm be an observer over your activities or otherwise he is ordered to take charge of the army. Omar Saad on the same day (on the 9th day) issued the command for the attack. The sound of the hooves of the enemy's horses and uproar of the cavalier made the Master of the Martyr (AS) aware of their attack and said to His Excellency Abul Fazl Abbas: to go and ask for their intention. He went and came back, said: with the intention of fighting and clash and combat and war, they have attacked us. Said: go and for tonight ask them for respite that I want to pray to the Almighty God and bid farewell. His Excellency Abol Fazl after discussions took respite from them and postponed the war to the next day morning. His Holiness again said to the same small group of companions who had remained that tomorrow morning the war will start and will end late afternoon with my martyrdom, and this army has nothing to do with others except me, and you O' my companions and my family and my people, each one of you who are desirous of taking your life out of this danger, till the darkness of night run away, and I have lifted my Bayat from you and have released you from obligations and my pact. Go away and take your lives to safety, then for embarrassment not to be an obstacle for going away, he put his head on his knee and closed his eyes. According to some narrations that a group of up to 350 persons went away that night and left His Holiness with a few persons to fight in the battlefield. But the opposite also happened that the same night a group of 32 persons from the army of Omar Saad maybe with the intention of a night raid or for spying had come near to the vicinity of the camp, as a result of hearing the sound of the recitation of the Koran by His Holiness were attracted and joined His Holiness and in the morning as both sides were busy for preparing for the war, Horr bin Yazid Riyahi who was regretful of his deeds joined the army of His Holiness the Master of the Martyrs (AS) with his son and brother and on the morning of Ashura according to the famed narrations with the Bani Hashem and relatives and his children were 32 persons on horseback and 40 persons infantry on foot, totally 72 persons and according to some narrations there were 72 persons except Bani Hashem and relatives. In any case, surely in all respect, they were not more than 125 persons.

On the morning of 10th Muharram (Ashura) the year 61 Hijri (13, October 680 AD), after alignment of both troops and His Holiness’ farewell with members of the household and delivery of the first sermon besides the battleground and introduced himself, the first battle started and took about two hours, after that period, both sides for inspection of their disposition separated from each other, and a pause resulted in the war. His Holiness after checking to see his companions, in this attack, he observed fifty persons from his companions such as Horr ibn Yazid, were martyred. After a brief interval, the second attack started, and in this attack, a number of his other companions were also martyred. It was the time for the afternoon prayer. His Holiness recited the Prayer of fear. During prayer, even a few persons who were standing in front of His Holiness shielding him were targeted by the enemies’ arrows and were martyred. The third attack, the Hashemiyans cousins and nephews and brothers till His Holiness’ son Ali Akbar all were martyred. The sun was moving towards westwards that only His Holiness and His Excellency Abul Fazl Abbas nobody else remained alive, and the two brothers with the help of each other like fierce lions attacked and left a hill of killed bodies behind. This time the cry of “thirst” of the women and children made His Excellency Abol Fazl to fetch water, with the permission of His Holiness Hossein (AS) he separated from him and went towards the Euphrates river, and filled the traditional leather water carrying bag with water, but before reaching the water to the tents, the Kufiyans cut off his blessed hands and split the blessed crown of his head and martyred him. His Holiness (AS) after this remained totally alone. He one time said:[4] “Is there a helper who would help me” and the next moment would attack in his own way, till the wailing and yelling of the household reached his tent and Ali Asqar his breastfeeding baby who with the intensity of thirst and his condition of tenderness which was the cause of wailing and yelling of the household; His Holiness took his son from them and came to the accursed and requested for water. In return for water, the apostate Harmala with a heart-rending arrow martyred the delicate flower of the garden of prophethood. His Holiness took the body of the child behind the camp and buried him. Then for the last farewell went to his tent and bade farewell with the household and made his necessary recommendation to his sister Zainab Kobra and placed his hand on her chest and entered upon her blessed heart, the divine quietude (Sakina) and bestowed her the highest level of patience and perseverance and entrusted the women and children in her care. Then went to the tent of His Holiness Sajjad (AS) and surrendered the secrets of guardianship and Divine Deposit to him. Informed Her Excellency Zainab about the divine leadership of His Holiness Sajjad (AS) and witnessed her to his succession and advised her to obey and observe the dignity of divine leadership.

Then relieved went back towards the battlefield and with intensity attacked the enemy and since the vulpine army ran away from his sword and nobody dared to face him. Omar Saad ordered that His Holiness should be aimed from far by arrows and stones. As a result, a stone hit his forehead, and an arrow pierced him in his blessed heart. His Holiness fell down from the horse. He felt a fainting condition that came over him, that Shemr ibn Ziljushan and Senan bin Anas rushed by his side. Senan pierced a spear to his blessed side, and Shemr separated his blessed head and put it on a spear…the world was turbulent, dust and storm covered the entire world, the earth trembled by itself. It was during this time the sun was inclined to dusk that the Kufiyans charged for plundering of the tents of the immaculate and since the household with a cry of “O! Mohammada” had gathered in the corner of the tents, the Kufiayans for their exit and for emptying the tents for plundering set the tents on fire that had been ignited to preserve the tents from attack of the enemy, Her Excellency Zainab agitated came to Syed Sajjad (AS) who was the Imam of the time and asked as to what should be done. The Imam said: run away – escape. The women of the household were made to flee in the wilderness, the tents were plundered, and His Holiness Seyyed Sajjad was made a prisoner. After plundering of the tents, the roar and clamour subsided, and the children were gathered from the wilderness and in the morning of the next day they were moved towards Kufeh as prisoners … After three days the Bani Asad tribe came to Karbala and buried the martyrs with the guidance of His Holiness Sajjad (AS) who was present with the divine power in the mausoleum of which the soil was the cure of the ailing and the visit of it was the cause of emancipation from the Fire. The greetings of the Almighty on them and Salam on Him and his companions.

At the time of martyrdom, the age of His Holiness was 56 years and five months, and the time of his Divine Caliphate was 11 years.

The excellence and virtues of His Holiness have no boundaries and limits, O! Almighty God, apply his intercession about us and make us live under the flag of his grandfather.[5]

His sacred being was the light of the eye of His Holiness Mustafa (SAAS) son of His Holiness Morteza (AS) and offspring of Her Holiness Fatimah Zahra (S). In his childhood, his recreation was the shoulders of His Holiness, the Prophet, and his throat and lips were the places of kisses of that Master. His blessed essence was the fifth companion of the Kisa[6] and the third illumination of salvation and second of “our children”[7] and the father of the noble and prestigious Imams[8], and the Master of the Martyrs[9], and there is healing in his soil, and under his dome, there is acceptance for prayers.[10] The Holy Prophet (SAAS) said about him:[11] “Hossein is from me, and I am from Hossein,” and he passed Ebrahim his son in his remaining existence, bestowed him the title of[12] Syed Shabab dweller of heaven.

The external miracles and generosities from his blessed self during his lifetime and from his sacred head and blessed grave after his martyrdom, is out of limit and enumeration. The martyrs in the way of God and devoted servants of His Holiness the Master of the Martyrs according to the sacred book of the rules of pilgrimage and most traditions there were seventy-one or seventy-two persons that seventeen or eighteen persons were from the Bani Hashem as follows: two persons, sons of His Holiness Abu Abdullah: Ali Akbar and Ali Asqar, and five persons’ brothers of His Holiness:

1. Abol Fazl al-Abbas bin Ali

2. Abdullah bin Ali

3. Jaffer bin Ali

4. Othman bin Ali

5. Mohammad or Abu Bakr bin Ali (as per the disagreement of narrations)

Three person nephews of His Holiness

1. Abu Bakr bin Al Hassan

2. Abdullah bin al Hassan

3. Qasim bin Al Hassan

Two person children of His Holiness’ sister, children of Abdullah bin Jaffer

1. Onn bin Abdullah

2. Mohammad bin Abdullah Aqeel

And five-person children of His Holiness paternal uncle, children of Aqeel (exception of His Excellency Muslim)

1. Jaffer bin Aqeel

2. Abdu Rahman bin Aqeel

3. Mohammad bin Abi Sayeed bin Aqeel

4. Abidullah bin Muslim bin Aqeel

5. Ebrahim bin Muslim bin Aqeel

And the remaining martyrs fifty-five or fifty-four persons who were among the companions that the names of some of them would be mentioned.

1. Muslim bin Ousejeh

2. Zahir bin Laqin

3. Horr bin Yazid al Reyahi

4. Nafeh bin Helal

5. Abu Shomameh Saydavi

6. Abis bin Shabib Al Shakeri

7. Abdullah bin Yaqtar

8. Habib bin Mazaher or Mazhar.

Marriage of His Holiness

1. Shahr Banu, daughter of Yazdegerd the Shah of Iran

2. Robab, daughter of Amr Al Qays

3. Umme Layla, daughter of Abi Marra

4. Umme Ishaq

5. Qazaiyah

Sisters of His Holiness who were with him in Karbala

1. Her Excellency Zainab Kobra

2. Umm Kulthum

3. Fatemeh

4. Safiya

5. Roqayyah

6. Umm Hani

Daughters of His Holiness

1. Fatemah Soqra who for the reasons of being ill remained in Medina

2. Sakinah

3. Roqayyah

4. Fatemah that these three ladies were in Karbala

Sons of His Holiness

His Holiness had four sons:

1. Jafar bin Hossein who before the martyrdom of His Holiness died in Medina

2. His Holiness Ali bin Al Hossein Zain Al Abedin from the womb of Shahr Banu, daughter of Yazjord

3. Ali bin Al Hossein known as Ali Akbar whose mother was Umm Leyla, daughter of Abi Marra

4.Ali bin Hossein, known as Ali Asghar who was from the womb of Robab, daughter of Amr Al Qays.

[1] لَحْمُکَ لَحْمي.

[2] يا حُسين اخرج اِلي العِراق فاِنّ اللهَ شاءَ اَنْ يراکَ قَتيلاً.

[3] حَلََّ بَين الحُسين و ماء الفرات

[4] هَلْ مِنْ ناصرٍ ينْصُرُني

[5] اَللهُمَّ ارزُقْنا شفاعَتَه و احشُرنا تَحتَ لواءِ جدّه.

[6] خامس اصحاب کساء.

[7] ثالث انوار هدی و ثاني مصداق ابنائنا.

[8] ابوالائمة النجباء.

[9] سيد الشهداء.

[10] في تربته الشّفاء و في تحت قبته إجابة الدّعاء.

[11] حسين منّي و انا من حسين.

[12] سيد شباب اهل الجنة.



صفحه اصلي/a> - سلسله اولياء - كتب عرفاني - پند صالح - تصاوير - بيانيه‌ها - پيوند - جستجو - يادبود - مكاتبه - نقشه سايت - اعلانات

استفاده و كپی برداری از منابع، مطالب، محتوی و شكل این سایت با رعایت امانت و درستی آزاد است.

تصوف ايران ۱۳۸۵

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